Fostering Critical Thinking Tip #1: Student Feedback

By Tim Bedley


Anna thru kids

A paradigm shift needs to occur in our classrooms to get the students thinking critically. Teachers must reduce the amount of feedback they give and ask the students to critique each other’s answers. This sounds simple, but it’s not. I’ve spent considerable time watching others teach, and without exception, every teacher immediately responds to students during discussions with judgments of all student answers. When teachers are the first to give feedback, the students grow lax and learn that their opinions don’t really matter. I taught for 17 years before I figured this out. My classroom was revolutionized after making the shift. Students began sharing more, they had greater boldness and confidence, and they developed deeper thoughts which they were able to express with more clarity.

Classroom Snippet

Traditional Classroom

Teacher: What do you think is wrong with this sentence? (Calls on a raised hand.)

Student: It’s too long. It’s a run-on.

T: That’s almost it. Try again.

S: Oh, yeah. It’s a fragment. It’s not a whole sentence.

T: Yes! There you go. Good job.

Critical Thinking Classroom

T: What do you think is wrong with this sentence?

S: It’s too long. It’s a run-on.

T: Thanks Sarah. Who else has a thought?

S: I don’t think it’s a run-on. It just doesn’t really sound like a run-on.

T: Who else?

S: It seems to be missing something more than being a run-on.

T: Raise your hand if you think this sentence is a run-on. (Looks) Raise your hand if you do NOT think it’s a run-on.

The discussion would progress like this. Some teachers are not willing to spend the time to develop this sort of class discussion. It’s laborious for sure and takes a great deal of teacher self-control. But the kids will enjoy taking the driver’s seat, they will develop deeper critical thinking skills, and you will know more about the way your students think. Try it. You’ll like it.

Using video to build schema

By Tim Bedley


Screen Shot 2013-01-03 at 6.52.31 PMMany of today’s students lack the life experience to truly comprehend what they read. Schema is the background knowledge a reader applies to understanding literature. In order to build schema, teachers and parents may want to use videos as the next-best-thing to a real-life experience.

I have organized a list of schema-building videos on my class website to accompany most of the stories from our basal reading book. With so much available on YouTube, a quick search can normally result in a plethora of options to help children build schema.

Less teacher talk means better student behavior

By Tim Bedley

2012-12-13 14.30.54Have you been around teachers who constantly yack at their students? Give them command after command after command? Have you noticed students in these classes tend to misbehave more?

Teachers with effective classroom discipline choose their words carefully and use as few of them as possible. Commands are brief and used only when essential.

Of course, classroom discipline is extremely complex and cannot be narrowed down to one factor, but a teacher who understands this concept will increase her effectiveness.

Train your students in classroom procedures instead of relying on spur-of-the-moment teacher directives. Use gestures to signal your kids. Be careful, or you will become the voice of Charlie Brown’s teacher and your students will tune you out.

Why do you shake with respect when a police officer walks up to your window? “Do you know why I pulled you over? License and registration.” Imagine a police officer standing on the corner incessantly lecturing everyone that went by. The effect would be greatly diminished.

Classroom Snippets:

  • The teacher wants a student from across the room to close the door. She looks at the student and makes a swinging door motion with her hand and then points to the door.
  • The students come in the room loudly after lunch. Instead of giving the kids a big lecture about how many times they’ve been told, the teacher says, “Our class comes into buildings silently. Go outside and do it correctly.”
  • Several students turned in math papers without names. Instead of berating the class for their laziness, the teacher says, “Please stand if I say your name.” After reading all the names from the math papers, the teacher says, “These students followed directions by putting their names on their math papers. Go take a ticket.” Then the teacher lays the remaning papers on the floor and points to them while looking at the class.
  • A student is talking instead of working independently. The teacher calls the student’s name, beckons the student, and then says, “Sit up here and do your work.”

Watch a video of Tim teaching.

 

Using Google Forms for peer critique

By Tim Bedley


Students use iPads to peer critique.
Students use iPads to peer critique.

I use Google forms to help guide my 4th and 5th graders through the writing peer critique process. I have created tailor-made forms for Response to Literature, Summaries and more.
My students bring their own iPads to school. The few that do not own one borrow a class iPad. Students sit in pairs around the room with their iPad and recent writing assignment in hand. Each student is given about 15 minutes to critique their partner’s paper. I set a timer for this.
When the form has been completed, students use their iPad thesaurus to help the author enrich vocabulary.
I train the students to do this independently. It takes several times running through things with a lot of modeling and reflection to get the students able to work independently and effectively at peer critique.

You can see my critique forms at my class website.

De-Grading My Class

By Tim Bedley


Report-Card-1In my 25th year of teaching I made a major change in my classroom. I asked my families to opt out of letter grades.

This past summer, I did a lot of reading on the effect of letter grades on students. I became convinced that letter grades did more harm than good to the average student. I was determined to make a big adjustment in my 4th/5th combo class. But how?

The first week of school I held I parent meeting. Most parents attended. I got on my soapbox and explained my thinking on letter grades. Unfortunately I didn’t have a solution. I was very transparent with my parents and admitted my lack of a plan. Here’s what I talked about at the meeting.

Why do I not like letter grades?

  • Grades are subjective and arbitrary. What is an A? Who deserves A’s? If I give my students a math test, do the students who earn 90-100% deserve A’s? Why? What if the test is too hard or too easy? Should I grade on a curve? I teach GATE, so how would that work? Shouldn’t GATE students have a higher GPA than non-GATE students? How much higher? Was the math test given at a time when students were truly prepared?
  • Grades give parents a false sense of security or insecurity. My kid got an A! Wow! She is doing great! Well, not necessarily. If a child earns a C, is that failure? Should a parent worry or rejoice?
  • Grades don’t communicate any specifics. What does it mean to get a B in social studies? What information does that give to a parent about performance?
  • Grades vary greatly from teacher to teacher. For years, students from my 5th grade class who earned B’s and C’s from me have reported getting straight A’s when they hit middle school. Why? Am I too hard? Are the middle school teachers too easy? I truly don’t know and I don’t believe there is any way to know.
  • Grades don’t motivate most kids. This is a generalization and of course there are exceptions. I have found that most kids in elementary school are most motivated by “getting it done.” They just want to know that the assignment is over. I have offered retakes on tests many times over the years (on the student’s own time) and have never once had a student retake to improve a grade.

What hurdles did I have to overcome with the absence of letter grades?

  • The district requires that I fill in a report card, with letter grades, on each student.
  • Parents love grades, particularly those with kids who tend to get good ones.
  • Families know nothing else. Letter grades are a part of our American school culture.
  • Misunderstanding and shunning by fellow teachers. It’s hard to rock the boat. (I do not expect my colleagues to follow my “no letter grades” plan.)
  • Honor roll. What do I do with all of the kids in my class who are accustomed of standing up before their peers at the end of each trimester to be recognized as honor roll students?
BUT, I had a burning in my soul that I couldn’t ignore.

So the parent meeting ending without a resolution.

I sought council from my brother, Scott. He helped me to figure out a great compromise. I would throw the decision back to the parents. I asked each family to decide if they wanted to stick with letter grades or use an alternative. The alternative was to give students and parents feedback in the form of assessments, rubrics, data, and narratives. BUT no letter grades written on any assignments. 22 of the 31 students in my class and their families decided to opt out of letter grades.

What about report cards and honor roll? I still fill in report cards on these kids, but I don’t give a copy to the parents. It remains an internal document only. I award “honor roll” certificates to students to recognize them for relative areas of strength. For example, one student was recognized for excellence in math and leadership. The non-graded students stood in front of their peers along with the honor roll kids. I spoke individually with each of my teaching colleagues and explained what I was up to. I also told them I was NOT trying to get anyone else to follow suit. No one seemed to have a problem with the de-grading of my class.

The first trimester has concluded. Each of the 9 letter graded students received a standard report card. The other 22 received a one-page narrative written by me along with several other forms of specific feedback throughout the grading period.

How has this effected the kids and parents? The verdict is still out. I will be sharing my observations in a post later this year. I heard very little back from any of the kids or parents after the first “report cards” went out. The little I did hear was positive. The parents appreciated the narrative. An example of a narrative is shown below (formatting did not work on the blog.)

I am interested in your thoughts, supportive or constructive. Please leave a comment.

(SAMPLE TRIMESTER NARRATIVE REPORT)

Girl Student

1st Trimester Critique by Mr. Bedley

Girl is a WONDERFUL young lady. She comes to school ready to learn every day.

  • Reading Almost doubled her AR goal of 25 points. Reads books that are at a good level for her. Able to stay focused on books for a sustained period of time. Averaged 80% correct on the 3 story quizzes. Able to focus when reading with a friend.
  • Writing Very active on class blog. Writing improves all the time. Listens to instruction and learns. Effective collaborator with peer writing critiques. Follows directions and writes more than required.
  • Math Near the top of the class in math. Tries to get all answers right and understand every problem. Careful with math consensus. Stays on task until finishes math in class. Excellent scores on math tests.
  • Hit the Road Jack Valuable team member. Works hard to accomplish tasks. Learning a lot.
  • Behavior, manners Excellent behavior. Loves to help out in class. Follows class rules and procedures. Uses manners consistently. Does not complain.
  • P.E. attitude/effort Tries to do her best at P.E. A good team player, good sport.
  • Peer relationships Gets along really well with other students. Very mature.
  • Responsibility Homework always completed on time. She’s only missed one stamp all year. Hard worker.
  • Tutoring Girl is one of our best tutors. She’s very thorough and cares for her tutee. She’s very skilled at following the lesson plans and uses good judgement. She encourages her tutee.
  • Research skills Girl knows how to find information on her own and use it to present her findings in a clear manner.
  • Leadership Girl is a positive role model in the classroom. I would like to see her gain a little more confidence to lead other students and take risks.
  • Speaking skills, discussion, pair share Girl knows how to share talk time, speak out in front of the class with good volume and clarity, proper English.
  • Collaboration Good team member. Stays on task. Listens to the ideas of other students.
  • Direction following Great at following directions.

Overall, I am extremely pleased with Girl and her performance in all subject areas. She is a model student! If you wish to discuss Girl’s progress in more depth, please email me and we can set up a conference appointment.

APP-athy

By Tim Bedley

 

What is APP-athy? The point where you just can’t stand the thought of adding one more app to your iPad. There are now over a quarter million iPad apps. It’s impossible to keep up with them all. How many drawing apps do I need? Where did I save that picture of the kids? iCloud? Dropbox? Google Drive? Ugh.

It’s important to stay on top of the latest and greatest; however, there comes a point where the cost of change is not worth the upgrade. There are lesson plans to write, new children’s literature to read, and naps to be taken. Think about how many apps you’ve downloaded that you’ve used only once, or perhaps never at all.

Don’t sweat it. It’s ok that there are new educational apps that you’ve never heard of. If that new app is worth using, it will appear on a top 10 list in the days to come.

What is a quality math game?

By Tim Bedley


What makes a quality educational math game for kids?
A perfect blend of strategy and skills.
Almost every kids’ online math game involves one or the other, but rarely both. Normally, math games involve the player solving a math problem and, if they get the answer correct, they get to play a game.
I make a distinction between a game that makes you smarter and a game that teaches you math.

Angry Birds definitely can improve critical thinking skills along with other brain functions, but does it teach you to solve an actual math problem? Not really.
Sudoku helps the player to learn deductive reasoning. It’s a great thinking game. It involves numbers, but doesn’t teach any actual math that will help a child in school.
Now don’t take me wrong. I think that thinking games are awesome and I encourage my students to play FlowLittle Alchemy, and several other great strategy games. There’s just something beautiful when a game-maker comes up with a strategy game that actually teaches kids math vocabulary or math skills. Calculation Nation is a math game website produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM.) All the games (with the exception of Slamball) teach basic math skills while engaging the player in addictive strategy. For example, Times Square requires the player to constantly do multiplication facts in his/her head. Players must also keep track of offensive and defensive moves to obtain 4 in a row.

Another math game website to check out is GregTangMath.com. Greg has developed some excellent thinking games that kids love. My favorite game is Kakooma.

Another aspect of math games that I desire for my kids is the ability to play another real live kid. This makes the game much more exciting. Calculation Nation offers this option.
What are your favorite digital math games?